Normal skin colour is mainly dependant on haemoglobin, and melanin pigment. The ethnic differences in skin colour are related to the number, size, shape, distribution and degradation of melanin-laden particles called melanosomes. These are produced by the melanocytes and are delivered to the surrounding cells called keratinocytes.
We have two types of melanin pigmentation. One is responsible for skin colour and is genetically determined, and the other is induced by many factors such as: sun exposure, inflammation, irritation, hormonal effects, endocrine causes, etc.
Hydroquinone decreases the production of melanin and increases its breakdown. However hydroquinone can be irritating. Those whose skin cannot tolerate it can try serums containing arbutin (extracts of bearberry, mulberry and cranberry) kojic and azelaic acids, licorice or vitamin C, which decreases melanin production with less irritation and more gradually. Serum is applied as a very thin layer and is easy to wear under other products. Also, be sure to give the serum roughly 15 minutes to absorb before using moisturiser.
However, usually serums do not have enough emollients found in creams which help to buffer the active ingredients. Very sensitive skin can tolerate a cream formula better. Creams containing anti-inflammatory antioxidants like grape seed, almond and sesame seed extracts, will help smooth the skin as well.
Moisturising creams typically contain hyaluronic acid or glycerine which helps to draw water molecules into the skin. However if we have skin that is prone to acne or oiliness it is better to use a serum which usually has no occlusive ingredients like petroleum, shea butter or lanolin. To penetrate more deeply, we can add retinol or alpha-hydroxy acids to creams or serums.
Some can increase cell metabolism and accelerate not only collagen, but also elastin fibres and anti-ageing protein production. It also decreases the level of enzymes that attack collagen. Creams with retinol and peptides will remodel and increase collagen production, firm the skin and reduce fine lines in one or two weeks.
When applying a potent cream on the skin around the eyes, we have to do this gently and no product should be applied too close to the lower eyelid eyelashes. Also, avoid applying creams with a potentially irritating ingredient like retinol to the upper eyelid.
Fillers like hyaluronic acid hydrates and plumps the deep structure of the skin. It is difficult to penetrate the skins protective layers quickly and easily, as it is lipid. For any creams or serums, the ingredients should be more lipid-soluble to achieve some penetration.
Those with dry skin will need to follow up with a lotion or cream containing occlusive ingredients, like shea butter.
For further details and to renew your confidence and embrace a younger fresher look, please contact Cosmetic Medical Centre.